By definition, SEN students refer to students who have a disability of an intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional or behavioral nature, or have exceptional gifts or talents (Special Needs Students Order, 1989,2007). They may also be children with learning difficulties, such as visual or hearing impairment. As learnt in lectures, common SENs in local classrooms include Dyslexia, ADHD and Autism. Differentiation in content, teaching activities and assessments (products) can help SEN students achieve their potential and access the curriculum. For example, varying means to give instructions facilitates learning of some students with hearing impairment. According to a case study, a teacher differentiates instructions by using the board more and providing the student with more eye contact. Printed materials are usually prepared as well (Kronowitz, 2011). (It is a classroom with the combination of students without SEN and one student with hearing impairment.) Eventually, learning takes place and students (with and without SEN) are benefited from the differentiation. :)
Kronowitz, E.L. (2011). Teacher's Guide to Success. The UK: Pearson.
In response to Doris,I think providing more eye contact to students is a practical method to tackle the problems. It is because it makes the students think that teacher cares me. Meanwhile, teacher is aware of the behavior of students. However, i think this approach may not be enough for students with SEN. We should have more intensive caring for them instead of just giving them eye contact. For example, we should arrange them to sit nearer to the teachers, so that the teachers can give more attention to them
I would also like to drive attention to the motivation of SEN students. In most cases, students with SEN actually lack confidence in their academic performance, especially when there is labeling in class. Therefore, apart from achieving effective learning, the main target for us to use different strategies, is to increase students' motivation and confidence. In this way, students could still learn effectively in the future, even without any external help.
I would like to suggest focusing our discussion on a few special difficulties, like dyslexia, ADHD and autism. What do you think? :)
Let me talk about one differentiation strategy that helps with the learning of students with dyslexia. According to the Orton Dyslexia Society, dyslexia is defined as a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by difficulty in learning to read, write or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity. Elizabeth, Shirley and Sandra (1996) suggested the “modification” strategy to help these students. It is a strategy that changes the work, making it different from other students’ and encouraging success of the students with special need. An example is that teacher gives a complete handout of the lecture to the students with dyslexia before the lesson. Usually, teachers regard note-taking as a training of listening and attention to ordinary students. But to students with dyslexia, this reduces their cognitive load as they do not need to take note while listening to teachers. Besides, since these students usually have difficulties in spelling, this prevents the difficulty in recognizing the words during revision. Yet, one drawback is that this might add burden to teachers as they need to prepare a more detailed note for this small group of students.
Sure! I think it’s good to focus our discussion on dyslexia, ADHD and autism, as they are the common special educational needs in local classrooms.
Referring to the “modification” strategy, I agree that giving handouts of the lesson to students with dyslexia may reduce their cognitive loads. As many students with dyslexia have difficulty in learning and applying the letter-sound correspondences, they usually spend a lot of energy and time in decoding a message. As a result, not much attention is left for encoding the message, i.e., taking notes while listening.
Similarly, given that students with dyslexia usually write slowly, using handouts prevents students from having to listen and write at the same time. Handouts may also help students organize information when having the lesson.
Apart from “modification”, another strategy which may be employed in teaching students with dyslexia is “accommodation” (Elizabeth, Shirley & Sandra, 1996). It is a strategy that does not change the information or the amount of knowledge that students should learn (Elizabeth, Shirley & Sandra, 1996). Instead, it changes the academic environment, allowing students to demonstrate and utilize their acquired knowledge and skills. For example, as students with dyslexia usually have difficulty in following directions, teachers may break down a complex learning task into smaller chunks which students can manage. This scaffolding enables students to learn step by step and encourages students to learn. It provides students with opportunities to demonstrate their mastery of knowledge before proceeding to unfamiliar content.
Other examples of accommodation include extra time on assignments and untimed tests. :)
I would like to relate the differentiation strategies for Dyslexics suggested by Liliale and Doris to the case of Howard, a dyslexic learner I encountered. To Howard, writing is a meticulous process that is hard physically and organizationally, despite having a resourceful mind in brainstorming. I agree with the possible coexistence of disability and giftedness, which Doris put forward in the theoretical framework of SENs. According to Ronald D. Davis' “The Gift of Dyslexia”, this condition is rather a unique formation of the brain that causes a person to perceive the world differently. (Davis, 2010) I believe SENs can achieve as much as the mainstream leaners with appropriate intervention from teachers in the form of differentiation strategies. Liliale’s suggestion of “modification strategy” reminds me of the individual consultation I offered to Howard as corrective feedback. I asked Howard directed questions within and between paragraphs so that Howard re-connected his ideas more cohesively. However, Howard still encountered the cognitive load and visual overwhelming-ness when he processed the ideas in written forms. When reflecting on this pedagogical experience, perhaps I could have adopted the “accommodation strategy”, such as using mind-maps and flow-charts to help Howard construct a cohesive picture of his writing. This implies the need of using multiple strategies in differentiation so that SENs can be genuinely benefited.
Another student disability that challenges teachers is students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly known as ADHD. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2004), ADHD is defined as a neurological condition which affects organization, learning, performance and behavior. Three core features are identified with ADHD, ranging from distractibility, impulsivity to hyperactivity. (American Psychiatric Association, 2004) Researchers and specialists have differentiated strategies to deal with each symptom specifically. Hyperactivity, the most recognizable characteristic, can be dealt with by task-oriented reward activities. (McAllister, 2012) This is based on “optimal-stimulation theory”, in which children with ADHD have the tendency to heighten the level of stimulation required for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning. Task-oriented activities engage their attention to satisfy their intrinsic need for excessive stimulation, while rewards act as the catalyst and positive reinforcer for constructive behavior in class. Any suggestions on how to deal with impulsivity and inattention?
McAllister, L. (2012). POSITIVE TEACHING. American Music Teacher, 61(4), 18-22.4
It's great to know your opinion about views toward the strategies in helping SEN students to achieve effective learning in class. I would like to share my points about students with Autism.
I think in most cases students with Autism are neglected in class if they don't misbehave or interrupt the lesson. Some of the teachers even do not have a good understanding about their needs. In fact, students with autism may learning difficult due to their deficits in motor skills, imagination, and organization paired with literal thinking skills (Asaro-Saddler, Kristie and Bruce Saddler, 2010). Therefore, teachers should provide appropriate curricula and more individualized instruction for students with autism, who often have lower psychomotor (Reid, O'Connor, & Lloyd, 2003) and cognitive skills (Rutter, 2005) than typically developing counterparts. Also, as suggested by Todd and Reid (2006) recommended, teachers should focus on the strategies combining external reinforcers, self-monitoring, and verbal cuing, which can sustain engagement for individuals with autism. For example, one of the popular strategies, peer tutoring, requires students to provide instruction, prompt, or feedback followed by reinforcement. As a result, students with moderate-severe developmental disabilities can improve learning time (DePaepe, 1985; Webster, 1987, Klavina & Block, 2008) and correct performance of motor skills (Houston-Wilson, Dunn, van der Mars, & McCubbin, 1997, Klavina & Block, 2008).
I think these teaching method is effective. For peer tutoring, it requires students to provide instruction, prompt, or feedback followed by reinforcement. This can help to train students with Autism to adapt to the daily communication of people. This can help them to know how to respond to others properly and understand others. This can enhance their social life. meanwhile, they can learn more effectively.
I agree with Eureka that it is difficult to discover students with autism because they usually sit quietly in the classroom without disturbing the lesson. Therefore, I think it is important for teachers to carry out more task-based activities so as to see if any students have the characteristics of autism, e.g. rejecting talking with others, etc. And i think the strategies suggested by Eureka are very useful! :D
In response to Ada, I agree that task-oriented activities are good for ADHD students. :) However, as sometimes task-oriented activities can be quite difficult to be carried out (as students many move around the classroom instead of sitting quietly and listen to the teacher), some behavioral interventions are needed (DuPaul, Weyandt & Janusis, 2011). For example, during the class, it is crucial for teachers to introduce the class rules clearly and positively. We teachers should state in the rules that what should students do instead of what students should not do so as to make the rules more encouraging. More importantly, in order to sustain the discipline in class, teachers should always post the rules out and review them with ADHD students so that they know there are teachers' interventions on their behaviors. By continuously reminding ADHD students of the class rules, it is believed that their hyperactive behaviors can be controlled. :)
Dupaul, G.J., Janusis, G.M. & Weyandt, L.L. (2011). ADHD in the clssroom: Effective intervention strategies. Theory Into Practice, Vol 50, pp.35-42.
For the peer tutoring strategy given by Eureka, it indeed sounds quite new to me. :P Yet, I do believe that students with autism benefit from this, because this process forces students to act as a tutor, in other words, they must understand the learning material before they could present the knowledge or give feedback. In addition, I think teacher should guide these “tutors” from time to time before they can handle it fully, just like scaffolding.
The strategy which I would like to talk about this time is actually an extension of the “modification” approach given by Doris, which is about untimed test. Since the most common way for measuring students’ learning progress is though assessment, it is believed that one approach to set a fair assessment for students with dyslexia is untimed test. As suggested by Elizabeth, Shirley and Sandra (1996), testing time for students with dyslexia needs to be lengthened. It is because when compared with other children, these students need more time to code their thoughts into words; it takes a longer time for them to choose the appropriate words to express their ideas. Therefore, these scholars believe that untimed test is a more appropriate approach. However, to adopt this strategy, teachers may need to allocate a different time period to have assessment with students with dyslexia. :)
I agree that teachers can treat the students with special needs differently like giving students with dyslexia much more time for their tests. I would like to point out that similar situation can be applied to students with ADHD. According to Dupaul and Stoner (2003), teachers can reduce the task or assignments demands by like shortening the length or reducing the content. It is because students with ADHD usually have a short attention span. Therefore, it is crucial for them to avoid off-task or disruptive behaviors. As time goes by, when it is shown that students with ADHD are able to finish the shortened tasks, teachers can gradually increase the workload of their assignments and eventually it is hoped that students with ADHD can handle the equivalent workload of the other students.
In my opinion, it is worthwhile for teachers to try out the strategy of reducing the workload for ADHD students. However, it is important to explain well to the other classmates or else the other students may find it unfair.
DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2003). ADHD in the schools. New York: Guilford.
In response to Ginnie, I also believe that clear instruction does play an important role in managing a differentiated classroom. It is also crucial for us to understand students' learning profile and background before we implement different kinds of strategies, just like what Liliale has mentioned.
On top of that, I would like to share more about the strategies used to manage a differentiated classroom. I would use ASD(Autism) students as example again:) our main consideration are how we enhance the social interactions of them and to fully integrate them into academic and co-curricular experiences with their counterparts . To achieve these, teachers should make optimum use of an inclusive setting requires that a student with ASD have some ability to interpret the swirl of interpersonal events occurring within the day to day environment(Ferraioli & Harris, 2010). That is, try to increase their frequency of social initiations and responses in classroom, as it informs a student’s understanding of daily school events, from knowing how to respond when a peer initiates an activity, to knowing how to line up to go outside, to recognizing when a peer is
trying to manipulate the child with ASD into breaking a school rule(Ferraioli & Harris, 2010). What I really want to raise here, is the importance of giving good instructions and including students into effective social life. These help them to achieve effective learning with peer interactions.
In response to Eureka, I think giving more chances for students with Autism to engage in school life is appropriate. However, we may need to have some arrangements before asking them to engage the activities. For example, we should inform them much more earlier. This can give them time to prepare themselves psychologically. Therefore, this can eliminate their emotional problems.
It’s good to hear from all of you! I agree with Eureka and Ginnie that it is difficult to identify students with autism, partly because they are sometimes classified as slow learners. Their difficulties in communication and social interactions may simply be interpreted as the lack of confidence of normal students. I also think that the strategy suggested by Eureka, peer tutoring, is useful in engaging students with autism. As students have to understand the knowledge, provide information and give responses to their peers, this strategy does not only facilitate learning, but also enables students to learn and practice (both verbal and non-verbal) communication skills, trying to overcome their difficulty in interacting with others. And just like what Liliale has mentioned, perhaps teachers should provide more assistance to students with autism when carrying out the activity, such as guiding questions and provision of key words! :)
In response to Liliale’s comment on the “accommodation” approach for students with dyslexia, yes, an untimed test increases teachers’ work but I think it is still worth adopting. As she have mentioned, students with dyslexia really need more time to process information and complete the test. More importantly, I believe that being “fair” doesn’t mean that students should be treated exactly in the same way. Some changes are required to address their needs and characteristics.
Another strategy which may help students with dyslexia to learn is the use of multi-sensory lessons (McLean & Stoke, 2009). When giving instructions, teachers may include more than one way to deliver the message. For example, they may back up instructions visually by writing on board or giving handouts. Also, when designing learning activities, teachers may consider involving a variety of tasks. Examples include the use of art works and hands-on activities. Since there is evidence suggesting that dyslexic children may be creative and interested in art and music, the multi-sensory strategy probably enables them to understand the learning content more easily. Additionally, it prevents from always using written and word-based materials which can be cognitively overloading for dyslexic students. Yet, the disadvantages are that it involves a lot of time and efforts to prepare relevant teaching materials(McLean & Stoke, 2009), and it is sometimes difficult to explain certain concepts in pictorial or tactile approaches. :)
McLean, B, & Stoke, B. (2009). Creating a Dyslexia-Friendly Classroom. Helen Arke Dyslexia Center.
It seems that all of us agree that teachers guidance plays is of great importance in helping students with differenent educational needs to achieve effective learning. Apart of that, I would like to introduce a strategy to all of you which can enhance students social abitity, whuch is critical to their learning process.
Chiu (2004) mentions that students with ASD are lacking in central coherence and executive function. Therefore, they only focus on certain details, but neglect the whole picture or meaning of the materials. Also, they could not properly deal with large amount of information. It leads to commication problem. To enhance their social skills, teachers can make good use of 'telling story'. That is, teachers can help ASD students develop their own 'word banks' (which is for daily communication' via telling various stories to them. After understanding the sitations and feelings of the characters in the story, students can learn different social skills, such as the manner when we are facing strangers, the way to express our feelings, and how we apologize when we do something wrong. This strategy helps ASD students control their emotions and the way to express themseleves, thereby faciliating their daily learning process.
I agree with you, Eureka! :) Some researchers find out that social ability and some social skills can predict students’ academic performance. For example, McClelland, Morrison and Holmes (2000) suggests that students’ interpersonal skills contribute to their early school performance. There is a positive correlation between the acquisition of social skills and academic success. Therefore, I think it is worthwhile to teach students as risk some social skills in order to promote learning.
Just a note on Eureka’s point, probably some follow-up activities can be used to reinforce the learning of social skills. Teachers may have explicit instructions on some phrases and invite students to practise using the skills. Also, I think the “telling story” method isn’t only suitable for students with autism (in teaching social skills), but also students with ADHD (in telling them what they should/ shouldn’t behave).
McClelland, M. M., Morrison, F. J., & Holmes, D. L. (2000). Children at Risk for Early Academic Problems: The Role of Learning-Related Social Skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(3), 307–329.
Eureka has made a good point on the imperative role of terachers' guidance in implementing intervention strategies for SENs. Our discussion so far has indicated there is a dynamic interplay between teachers and SENs, be it the case of dyslexia, ADHD or Autism. Another core component that we have to identify when designing differentiation strategies is the classroom environment. According to National Association of School Psychologists (2002), the significance of teachers' guidance in how educators establish classroom environment that are conducive to desirable learning behaviours. That is to say, appropriate environmental changes is a prerequisite for the success of intervetion strategies. In the case of ADHD, the behaviour intervention approached suggested by Ginnie as well as the modification and accomodation approach put forward by Doris and Lilale echo with this rationale. As suggested in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997, while a variety of classroom interventionsare among the recommended components of strategies to support SENs, a special emphasis is given to environmental modifications.
According to Barkley, environmental modification in the case of ADHD highlights the consideration of both antecedents and consequences of both the problem and replacement behaviors need to be studied. Antecedents, which refers to how the problem arises, willsuggest environmental changes that set up the student for success or failure. Analysis of consequences, on the other hand, will identify those environmental contingencies that reinforce both desired and undesired behavior. The function of the problem behavior should guide intervention plans. For example, if the behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement (e.g., the behavior allows the
student to avoid an undesired academic task), then the intervention should ensure that this goal is not obtained by the problem behavior. At the same time the intervention should teach the student that performing the desirable behavior is a more effective way of obtaining a desirable outcome. Not only is it important to identify for students what behavior is unacceptable (what we don’t want a student to do), but it is also essential to make clear what behavior is acceptable (what we want a student to do). These behaviors should be carefully defined so that the teacher will be able to accurately monitor them. For example, a reward and punishment system can be established and exercised by teacher in the classroom to encourage positive behavior while discouraging negative behavior.
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. PP. 84-93
In response to Ada, ADHD students always have ODD. Students with ODD always not obey and follow others' instruction. This can trigger many problems and lead to conflict between ADHD students with ODD and people. Teacher should understand them more and be considerate. The ADHD students do not misbehave intentionally.
Responding to Ada and Sze Wah, although most ADHD students are impulsive and do not intend to offend others or disrupt the class, I think it is useful and worthwhile to set up rules in classrooms. Rules and a reward and punishment system clearly define the norms that students should follow, and enables students to know teachers’ expectations on them. :)
I think the teaching methods suggested by all of you are very practical. I would love to share more teaching methods to help students with Autism to learn better. Study shows that we should provide mands training phase where mands (request) were taught using naturalistic techniques. After the training, students can demonstrate a higher frequency and rate of correct verbal mands during the training. After the training, students can demonstrate some generalization of manding to items acquired as tacts and were able to identify as tacts many of the items acquired as mands. (Halpern, 2003)I think this training can improve the communication between teachers and students. By knowing student's request, teaching can give appropriate response and help students with Autism better.
I would love to share more to help students with Autism. We cannot always give so much attention to students with Autism. It is because there are still other students in the classroom. Therefore, we should teach Autism to learn by themselves more effectively.
According to study, teachers should focus on meta-cognition. Meta-cognition refers to students able to think about his own thinking. This can help students to become conscious of his thought processes and more engaged and in control of his own learning. They can develop conscious understanding of focusing and shifting attention ; identifying and defining important elements in a task and event; remembering and retrieving information from memory ; motoring,checking,evaluating and revising his approach to tasks.Therefore, students can be aware of his thinking and the learning methods that they use. Students can be independent and reflect his thinking and and his problem solving.(Heather, 2008)
Heather MacKenzie.(2008). Reaching and teaching the child with autism spectrum disorder : using learning preferences and strengths. London ; Philadelphia : Jessica Kingsley. PP. 51-52
Sze Wah’s reply reminds me of one strategy which may be useful in teaching dyslexic students, especially reading. Just like what Sze Wah has mentioned, metacognition allows students to reflect on and control their own learning processes. This important brain process, however, is usually less developed among students with dyslexia. Therefore, some scholars recommended that metacognition should be taught to those students. One strategy of teaching metacognitive skills is K-W-L (Rief & Stern, 2010). K refers to students’ prior knowledge about the subject; W is what students want to learn, while L means what students have learnt. Teachers may make use of KWL and elicit answers from dyslexic students. This approach involves self-awareness, self-monitoring, and being strategic in learning. It helps SEN students review on their learning and eventually be able to learn better than before.
Rief, S. F., & Stern, M. (2010). The Dyslexia Checklist. The USA: Jossey-Bass. PP. 106-108.
I do agree with Ada's point of stressing classroom environment. In fact, school environments are social environments and the standard model of teaching and learning is an interactive model, so social skills are vital for students to successfully integrate into the setting.
To increase students' participation in classroom activities, it is of signifance for teachers to provide a positive classroom environment for students with special educational needs. For example, teachers should avoid and mediate the conflicts in class, and encourage students to help each other. Do not always specify or lable the students with special educational needs, as it may arouse awkward feelings to the whole class, which will hinder the development of socializing of SEN students.
I as well agree with Sze Wah that we teachers cannot spend too much time or pay too much attention on students with special needs because there are still many others problems we have to deal with in a classroom. Therefore, I suggest that students having special needs should have the responsibility to monitor their behaviors in class. According to DuPaul, Weyandt & Janusis (2011), students with ADHD should be given a role to self-regulate their classroom behaviors. For example, students should be taught to evaluate their behaviors in class. Teachers can give them a Likert Scale (ranging from poor to excellent) which evaluates their behaviors. At first teacher and students with ADHD can together evaluate the behaviors. When time goes, students with ADHD should be able to evaluate and reinforce their behaviors in classroom. They should be able to match the teacher's ratings and demonstrate success in improving and monitoring their behaviors. :)
Dupaul, G.J., Janusis, G.M. & Weyandt, L.L. (2011). ADHD in the clssroom: Effective intervention strategies. Theory Into Practice, Vol 50, pp.35-42.
I agree with Ginnie that Likert Scale should be given to students with ADHD. Meanwhile, if ADHD students have improvement and have meet the requirements, we should praise them concrete words. They will understand which specific action is good and follow the rules more easily.
In response to Ginnie’s suggestion, I agree that students should be taught to evaluate their own behaviors in class. It is because both the teachers and students bear the responsibility to students’ certain misbehaviors. In usual practices, teachers tell the students explicitly that they have misbehaved. However, in a class of 20 to 30 pupils, it is impossible for the teachers to keep an eye on students with AHDH all the time. Therefore, a guide to self-regulation is essential for the long term development for the children.
According to Barkley(2000), behavioral inhibition or regulation is the core problem for ADHD students. To help them to undergo behavior modification, teachers should note what triggers ADHD incident and the incidents leading to the continuing ADHD behavior. Of course, teachers later should focus on the positives and set clear behavioral goals for those students.
Apart from that, teachers should help students to develop meaningful and purposeful behavior, such as using verbal mediation to slow down and avoid conflicts. This point is similar to what Ada has mentioned above.
One learning aid recommended by Olofsson, Ahl and Taube (2012) is the use of audio books. Indeed, this learning aid is used by half of the participants in the research, who suffered dyslexia. As students with dyslexia have difficulty in word recognition, the audio books solely give sound to help them understand the text, without the need of decoding the words. Students only need to decode the sound into meaning. In this way, students will be able to learn faster. However, many students complain that it takes a long time to listen to the whole book. Also, even when the students find difficulty in understanding an idea, there is no one to answer their questions immediately. To solve these problems, I would suggest teachers to spare some extra-time outside the classroom to assist these students while they are listening the books. Teachers may help students to divide each chapter in to several parts, each time targeting on a particular area so as to reduce their cognitive load. In addition to this, with the presence of tutors, students can raise questions whenever they encounter difficulty. :)
Ake, O., Ahl, A. & Taube, K. (2012). Learning and study strategies in university students with dyslexia: implications for teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1184-1193.
I agree with Liliale’s point about the use of sounds and audio books with dyslexic students. It can speed up the process of understanding a message. Nevertheless, given that students with dyslexia have difficulty in reading, I am not sure whether this approach helps improve their reading ability or not, especially when they have to read individually. Anyhow, I think using audio books provides dyslexic students chances to learn through more than one pathway. :)
I’d like to share with all of you one possible strategy to develop reading ability of dyslexic students. As suggested by Reid (2011), paired reading (or shared reading) is useful in teaching students with dyslexia. Paired reading is a reading activity in which a teacher reads aloud a text while the class looks at the text and reads along with the teacher. This strategy requires students to read every word, and they will be corrected if they say the words incorrectly. In this way, it will improve students’ word recognition accordingly.
Also, reading aloud may arouse dyslexic students’ interest in reading. Making connections between written text and spoken words may improve their reading accuracy and fluency as well. I believe that little and often is the key to success. Listening to or paired reading part of a book regularly may help students with dyslexia a lot in overcoming their difficulties and facilitating learning!
Reid, G. (2011). Dyslexia (Special Educational Needs). (3rd Ed.). USA: Bloomsbury Academic. PP. 69-71.
In response to Doris, it is critical to arouse Dyslexia students' interest in writing. It is difficult for them to face their writing difficulties positively. Being a teacher, we should be always caring towards those students and help them achieve improvement gradually.
Also, I read some reference recently about the strategies to deal with ASD students. The reading (National Education Association, "The Puzzle of Autism", 2006) suggests giving students a visual menu of appropriate behaviors to use when they become agitated or overwhelmed. Show students their 'menu" when their stress levels rise. Frequent breaks will allow them to self-regulate sensory input and improve their attention and performance.
All strategies are used for helping students to figure out the best way for them to achieve effective learning. For long-term progress, students should learn to work independently. Do you guys have any suggestions about this?